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A Detailed Guide for Nation Pension Scheme

Updated: Aug 1, 2023


In today's fast-paced world, planning for a secure and comfortable retirement is more important than ever. The National Pension Scheme (NPS) offers an excellent opportunity for individuals to build a substantial retirement corpus and enjoy financial stability during their golden years. In this article, we will delve into the details of the NPS, its benefits, advantages, disadvantages, the right age of investment, withdrawal time, post-withdrawal benefits, and more. Let's explore this pension yojana and discover why it is gaining popularity among investors.

Retirement plan

Understanding the National Pension Scheme (NPS)

The National Pension Scheme (NPS) is a voluntary and long-term retirement savings plan introduced by the Government of India. It is managed by the Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA) and aims to provide financial security during retirement to all citizens. The NPS scheme is open to both employed and self-employed individuals.

Why Indian Government Promotes NPS?

The Indian government actively promotes the National Pension Scheme for several reasons:

1. Social Security: The NPS encourages citizens to save for their retirement, reducing the burden on the government to provide financial assistance to retirees.

2. Long-term Investments: By promoting long-term savings through the NPS, the government aims to channelize funds into productive investments, which can stimulate economic growth.

3. Tax Revenue: The NPS offers tax benefits to both contributors and the government. Contributions by individuals result in reduced tax liabilities, while the tax on lump sum withdrawals ensures revenue for the government.

Advantages of NPS:

1. Tax Benefits:

One of the key attractions of the NPS is its tax-saving benefits. Contributions made to the NPS are eligible for tax deductions under Section 80C of the Income Tax Act, allowing taxpayers to save up to Rs. 1.5 lakh per annum. Additionally, an exclusive tax benefit of up to Rs. 50,000 is available under Section 80CCD (1B), making it a preferred choice for those seeking tax efficiency.

2. Long-Term Wealth Creation:

The NPS is designed to encourage disciplined, long-term savings. By contributing regularly over several years, investors can accumulate a substantial retirement corpus that will ensure financial security in their post-retirement phase.

3. Flexible Investment Options:

The NPS offers two types of investment options: Active Choice and Auto Choice. Under Active Choice, investors can decide the allocation of their contributions across asset classes (Equity, Corporate Bonds, and Government Securities). In contrast, Auto Choice allocates funds based on the investor's age, gradually shifting towards safer investments as retirement approaches.

Disadvantages of NPS:

1. Restricted Withdrawals:

One of the drawbacks of the NPS is the restriction on withdrawals. Until the age of 60, investors can only withdraw up to 20% of their accumulated corpus for specific purposes, while the remaining 80% must be used to purchase an annuity plan. However, this ensures a regular income stream post-retirement.

Right Age of Investment:

While there is no fixed age to start investing in the NPS, the earlier you begin, the more time your investments will have to grow. Ideally, individuals in their 30s or 40s should consider starting their NPS accounts to take advantage of compounding and build a significant retirement corpus.

Lock-in Period:

The NPS comes with a lock-in period, meaning investors cannot withdraw their funds prematurely. Until the age of 60, investors are not allowed to withdraw more than 20% of the accumulated corpus, and the remaining 80% must be utilized to purchase an annuity. This ensures that individuals remain committed to their retirement savings and have a reliable source of income during their retirement years.

Interest Gain on NPS Investment:

The NPS provides investors with an opportunity to accumulate wealth through market-linked returns on their investments. The scheme offers two investment options:

1. Equity Allocation: Investors can choose to allocate a portion of their contributions to equities, which can yield higher returns in the long run. However, it also carries higher market-related risks.

2. Fixed Income Allocation: The NPS also offers the option to invest in fixed-income instruments, such as government securities and corporate bonds, which are relatively safer but may provide moderate returns.

The overall interest gain on NPS investments depends on the market performance and the chosen asset allocation strategy. Over the long term, the potential for higher returns makes the NPS an attractive retirement savings avenue.

Withdrawal Time and Post-Withdrawal Benefits:

Upon reaching the age of 60, investors can withdraw up to 60% of their NPS corpus as a lump sum, while the remaining 40% must be used to purchase an annuity that provides a regular pension income. This ensures a steady flow of funds during retirement.

Tax After Maturity Withdrawal:

The NPS aims to ensure financial security during retirement and provides investors with several options for withdrawing their accumulated corpus. Upon reaching the age of 60, individuals can withdraw up to 60% of their NPS corpus as a lump sum. However, this lump sum withdrawal is not entirely tax-free. The withdrawn amount is subject to tax, but the government offers a tax benefit by allowing up to 40% of the total corpus to be withdrawn tax-free. The remaining 20% is taxable, but individuals can further reduce the tax liability by investing the taxable portion in an annuity plan, which provides a regular pension income.

Brief Note on Auto and Active Choice of NPS:

1. Auto Choice:

Auto Choice is a default investment option offered by NPS, suitable for investors who prefer a hassle-free and hands-off approach to managing their investments. Under this option, the asset allocation is determined by the age of the investor. The younger the investor, the higher the allocation to equity, while as the investor approaches retirement age, the allocation shifts towards safer assets like government securities and corporate bonds. The allocation is automatically rebalanced by the NPS fund managers at regular intervals.

Benefits of Auto Choice:

- Simplified Investment: Investors do not need to actively manage their portfolio; the allocation is automatically adjusted based on age.

- Age-Appropriate Asset Allocation: The investment strategy aligns with the individual's risk tolerance and investment horizon.

2. Active Choice:

Active Choice is a more flexible investment option that allows investors to actively decide the allocation of their NPS contributions across different asset classes. Investors can choose from three asset classes:

- Equity: Invested in equity-related instruments, higher risk, and potential for higher returns.

- Corporate Bonds: Invested in fixed-income instruments issued by corporations, moderate risk, and steady returns.

- Government Securities: Invested in fixed-income instruments issued by the government, lower risk, and relatively stable returns.

Investors can determine the percentage of their contribution allocated to each asset class as per their risk profile and financial objectives.

Benefits of Active Choice:

- Customized Portfolio: Investors have control over their asset allocation, enabling them to tailor their investments to match their risk tolerance and investment preferences.

- Higher Growth Potential: Active Choice allows investors to take advantage of market movements and potentially achieve higher returns.

Difference between Auto and Active Choice

Both Auto Choice and Active Choice are valuable options in the National Pension Scheme, catering to different investor preferences. Auto Choice suits those seeking a hands-off approach and automatic asset allocation based on age, while Active Choice is suitable for investors who prefer to actively manage their portfolio and customize their asset allocation. Regardless of the choice, NPS remains a viable retirement savings avenue, offering tax benefits and potential long-term wealth accumulation.


1. Mr. Sharma, aged 35, starts investing Rs. 5,000 per month in the NPS under Active Choice with a 50% allocation to equities. Assuming an average annual return of 10%, when Mr. Sharma turns 60, his NPS corpus could be approximately Rs. 1.2 crore.

2. Ms. Patel, aged 45, opts for the NPS under Auto Choice, where the allocation to equities decreases gradually with age. By investing Rs. 10,000 per month, she could accumulate around Rs. 60 lahks by the time she reaches 60.


The National Pension Scheme (NPS) is a powerful retirement savings option that offers tax benefits, long-term wealth creation, and flexibility in investment choices. While it restricts withdrawals until the age of 60, it ensures a stable post-retirement income through annuity plans. Regardless of your age, considering the NPS scheme as a part of your retirement planning can provide financial security and peace of mind in the later years of life. So, start investing in NPS accounts today and secure your future!

Title Hook: Securing Your Future with NPS: Tax Benefits, Interest Gains, Lock-in Period, and More


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